Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease known also as:Disseminated Sclerosis or Encephalomyelitis Disseminata that attacks the central nervous system. It affects the insulating cells of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).

In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.

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What are the Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms. For some patients, symptoms are so mild that they do not notice anything until later in the course of the disease. Others may be aware of their symptoms in the early stages.

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There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms which may include:

  • Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs that typically occurs on one side of your body at a time, or the legs and trunk
  • Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often with pain during eye movement
  • Prolonged double vision
  • Tingling or pain in parts of your body
  • Electric-shock sensations that occur with certain neck movements, especially bending the neck forward (Lhermitte sign)
  • Tremor, lack of coordination or unsteady gait
  • Slurred speech
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Problems with bowel and bladder function
  • Muscle weakness
  • Visual disturbances
  • Difficulties with co-ordination and balance
  • Numbness and tingling, as in "pins-and-needles"
  • Problems with thinking and memory

What is the sex ratio of Multiple Sclerosis? 

It is two to three times more common in women than in men, and diagnosis usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 50 years.

What is the Disease course of Multiple Sclerosis(MS)?

Most people with MS have a relapsing-remitting disease course. They experience periods of new symptoms or relapses that develop over days or weeks and usually improve partially or completely. These relapses are followed by quiet periods of disease remission that can last months or even years.Small increases in body temperature can temporarily worsen signs and symptoms of MS, but these aren't considered disease relapses.

About 60 to 70 percent of people with relapsing-remitting MS eventually develop a steady progression of symptoms, with or without periods of remission, known as secondary-progressive MS.The worsening of symptoms usually includes problems with mobility and gait. The rate of disease progression varies greatly among people with secondary-progressive MS.

Some people with MS experience a gradual onset and steady progression of signs and symptoms without any relapses. This is known as primary-progressive MS.

What are the Risk factors of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

These factors may increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis:

  • MS can occur at any age, but most commonly affects people between the ages of 15 and 60.
  • Women are about twice as likely as men are to develop MS.
  • Family history.If one of your parents or siblings has had MS, you are at higher risk of developing the disease.
  • Certain infections.A variety of viruses have been linked to MS, including Epstein-Barr, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis.
  • White people, particularly those of Northern European descent, are at highest risk of developing MS. People of Asian, African or Native American descent have the lowest risk.
  • MS is far more common in countries with temperate climates, including Canada, the northern United States, New Zealand, southeastern Australia and Europe.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases.You have a slightly higher risk of developing MS if you have thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Smokers who experience an initial event of symptoms that may signal MS are more likely than nonsmokers to develop a second event that confirms relapsing-remitting MS.

What are the Complications of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

People with multiple sclerosis also may develop:

  • Muscle stiffness or spasms
  • Paralysis, typically in the legs
  • Problems with bladder, bowel or sexual function
  • Mental changes, such as forgetfulness or mood swings
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that attacks the central nervous system. It affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.

Symptoms range widely. In milder cases, there may be numbness in the limbs. Severe cases may involve paralysis or vision loss.

It is not possible to predict how multiple sclerosis (MS) will progress in any individual.

It is two to three times more common in women than in men, and diagnosis usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 50 years.

Fast facts on Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

  •  Multiple sclerosis affects the central nervous system.
  • Diagnosis usually happens between the ages of 20 and 50 years.
  • It is impossible to predict how the disease will progress.
  • Mild symptoms include tingling and numbness, but severe cases can involve vision loss and paralysis.
  • There is no cure, but treatment can relieve symptoms and help the person manage their daily living. Multiple sclerosis affects the nerve cells.
  • MS affects the central nervous system (CNS), but exactly why it happens is unclear.
  • In the CNS, nerve fibers are surrounded by a myelin sheath, which protects them. Myelin also helps the nerves conduct electrical signals quickly and efficiently. In MS, the myelin sheath disappears in multiple areas, leaving a scar, or sclerosis.
  • Multiple sclerosis means "scar tissue in multiple areas."
  • The areas where there is no myelin or a lack of myelin are called plaques or lesions. As the lesions get worse, nerve fibers can break or become damaged. As a result, the electrical impulses from the brain do not flow smoothly to the target nerve.
  • When there is no myelin, the fibers cannot conduct  the electrical impulses at all. The messages from the brain to the muscles cannot be transmitted

Types of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): This is a single, first episode, with symptoms lasting at least 24 hours.

Relapse-remitting MS (RRMS): This is the most common form, affecting around 85 percent of people with MS and involving attacks of new or increasing symptoms.

Primary progressive MS (PPMS): Symptoms worsen progressively, without early relapses or remissions. Around 15 percent of cases are PPMS.

Secondary progressive MS (SPMS): After initial episodes or relapse and remission, the disease progresses steadily.

What are the effects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

These can lead to :-

Bladder problems: There may be difficulty emptying the bladder completely, frequent urination, and urge incontinence

Bowel problems: Constipation can lead to fecal impaction, and this can lead to bowel incontinence.

Fatigue: This affects up to 90 percent of patients, and it can undermine their ability to function at work or at home.

Dizziness and vertigo: These are common problems, along with difficulties with balance.

Sexual dysfunction: A loss of interest in sex is common in both males and females.

 

How Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is diagnosed?

The doctor will carry out a physical examination, ask about symptoms, and consider the patient's medical history. No single test can confirm a diagnosis, so several strategies are needed when deciding whether a patient meets the criteria for a diagnosis.

There will be a neurologic exam, imaging scans, a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain, a spinal fluid analysis, and possibly other tests. These can help rule out other possible causes of the symptoms.

What is the medication for Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

Several disease-modifying  and symptomatic relief giving drugs are useful for the relapsing forms of MS.

GULVALEX: Herbal immuno-modulator ...improves the tissue-cellular structures. Dose 1 to 2 capsules three to four times a day with water or milk for long time.

 

AZARAQI extule : 1 capsule three to four times a day for nerve stimulation,for long times.

VIGOPROT : 10 gm twice or thrice a day for nutritional deficiencies.

DYNOGESIC liniment : Locally used application for allaying pains 

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